History of Two Minutes Silence

This article was written for the South African Legion by Peter Dickens and later published in the Kenya Regiment Magazine, Mini Sitrep Kenya.  One of our members, Don Thompson kindly forwarded the publication:

 I wonder whether readers realise that the ‘ two minutes silence’ and its association to Armistice Day, Remembrance Day (or 11/11). has a South African origin?

 This is why South Africans should stand proud of what they have given the world and on Remembrance Sunday and on Armistice Day in November – when the Western world stands silent in remembrance for “two minutes”, remember also that the entire ceremony has South African roots.

 At 05.30 in the morning of 11th November 1918. the Germans signed the Armistice Agreement also known as the Armistice of Compiegne, in a railway carriage in a remote siding in the heart of. the Forest of Compiegne, 60 km north of Paris.  Soon wires were humming with the message – ‘Hostilities will cease at 11.00 today,. November 11th.  Troops will stand fast on the line reached that hour.’

 Thus, at 11.00 on 11th November 1918 the guns on the Western Front in France and Flanders fell silent after more than four years of continuous warfare; warfare that had witnessed the most horrific casualties.   World War One (then known as the Great War) had ended.

 The time and date attained an important significance in post-war years and the moment that hostilities ceased became universally associated with the remembrance of those that died in that and su

When the first casualty lists recording the horrific loss of life in the Battles of the Somme were announced in Cape Town, Mr J.A. Eagar, a Cape Town businessman suggested, that the congregation of the church be attended, observe a special silent pause to remember those in the South African casualty list.  It was the church also attended by Sir Percy Fitzpatrick.  In May 1918, the Mayor of Cape Town, Councillor H. Hands (later Sir Harry Hands,) at the suggestion made by Mr. R.R. Brydon, a city councillor, in a letter to the Cape Times, initiated a period of silence to remember the events unfolding on the battlefields of Europe and the sacrifices being made there.    Mr. Brydon’ s son. Major Walter Brydon, was three times wounded and once gassed, was killed on April 1918.

 The pause would follow the firing of the Noon Gun, the most audible signal with which to co-ordinate the event across the city of Cape Town. The boom of the gun for the midday pause of three minutes for the first time on 14 May 1918, became the signal for all activity in the Mother City to come to a halt. Everything came to a dead stop while everyone bowed their heads in silent prayer for those in the trenches in Flanders.

 As soon as the city fell silent, a trumpeter on the balcony of the Fletcher and Cartwright’s Building on the comer of Adderley and Darling Streets, sounded the Last Post, the melancholy strains of which reverberated through the city. Reveille was played at the end of the midday pause.

 Articles in the newspapers described how trams, taxis and private vehicles stopped. Pedestrians came to a halt and most men bared their heads. People stopped what they were doing at their places of work and sat or stood silently. The result of the Mayor’s appeal exceeded all expectations. One journalist described a young woman dressed in black, who came to a halt on the pavement and furtively dabbed at her eyes with a handkerchief. ‘One could not but wonder what personal interest she had in the act of remembrance’, he wrote.

 A few days later, Sir Harry, whose son Captain Richard Hands, a member of Brydon’s Battery, had been mortally wounded in the same battle in which Major Brydon had been killed, decided to shorten the duration of the pause to two minutes, in order to better retain its hold on the people.

 In terms of the meaning of ‘two minutes’, it was also argued that the first minute is for ‘thanksgiving for those that ‘survived’, and the second is to ‘remember the fallen’.

 The midday pause continued daily in Cape Town and was last observed on 17th January 1919, but was revived in Cape Town during the Second World War. It had however, become a pause throughout the British Commonwealth from 11th November 1919.

 Sir Percy Fitzpatrick, author of the book ‘Jock of the Bushveld’, had been impressed by the period of silence kept in his local church after the horrific loss of life at Delville Wood became known and the casualty lists read out.  He had a personal interest in the daily remembrance as his son, Major Nugent Fitzpatrick, battery commander of 71st Siege Battery, was killed on 14th December 1917 by a chance shell fired at long range. Sir Percy was understandably deeply affected by the loss of his favourite son and was also so moved by the dignity and effectiveness of the two-minute pause in Cape Town, that the date and time of the Armistice inspired him to an annual commemoration on an Imperial basis.

 On 27th  October 1919, a suggestion from Fitzpatrick for a moment of silence to be observed annually on 11th  November. in honour of the dead of World War I, was forwarded to George V. then King of the United Kingdom, who on 7th  November 1919, proclaimed “that at the hour when the Armistice came into force. the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month. there may be for the brief space of two minutes, a complete suspension of all our normal activities, so that in perfect stillness, the thoughts of everyone may be concentrated on reverent remembrance of the glorious dead.”

 11th November was the date in l918 that the formal end of combat occurred to end WWI.  Fitzpatrick was thanked for his suggestion of the two-minutes silence by Lord Stamfordharn, the King’s Private

Secretary who wrote:

 Dear Sir Percy.

 “The King. who learns that you are shortly to leave for South Africa, desires me to assure you that he ever gratefully remembers that the idea of the Two Minute pause on Armistice Day was due to your initiation, a suggestion readily adopted and carried out with heartfelt sympathy throughout the Empire”.

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