For some time now the Kenmore-Moggill RSL Sub-Branch has had close relations with all the primary and high schools located within the Sub-Branch’s geographic boundaries. Known as the “Schools Program”, it was established to encourage relationship and understanding with the youth in our local schools. The Branch runs a series of programs which culminate in book prizes and cash bursaries for individual students. The primary school students participate in the Citizenship Award while students from the only high school in the area (Kenmore State High School) participate in the Fallen Legends Program.
The Fallen Legend’s Program is for high school students where they research a fallen serviceman named on the Kenmore Cenotaph and develop a fully referenced research paper.
The students’ work is presented to a review panel (teachers and RSL members) and assessed against pre-determined criteria and must be fully referenced and where available a series of photographs. The winner/s are announced at the KSHS’ Graduation Night. There is a bursary of $1000 for the winner and a selection of book prizes.
In 2015, six excellent research papers were submitted. The winners were:
First: Harry Talay
Second: Charlotte Davies and Mia Behnken (shared)
Third: Chloe Harbutt and Cassandra Nott (shared)
The first research paper published for 2015 is from the first place recipient: Harry Talay – Class 10L KSHS.
Research Paper By Harry Talay – (First Prize)
World War One, the Great War, the War to End all Wars. These are many names for the same fascinating yet destructive and terrible example of technological warfare that Australia became embroiled in with Britain in 1914, but there is one fact that stands true for all of the tens of thousands of Australia’s men lost their lives fighting in this war, including Walter Treble Congram, a young man who grew up in the Brookfield area of Brisbane.
Walter’s captivating story began when he was born on the 16th of September in 1895 in the Taringa butchery that his parents, William Congram and Annie Breddin, owned. He was the fifth child of the family of 10, and it’s likely that being in such a large family encouraged him to stand out (Genealogy.com, 2015, [online’]). Growing up in the area he attended Taringa State School (Australian Defence Force Academy, 2015, [online]) and, as he grew older, joined the Oxley Infantry, serving for one year as a cadet and then joining the Senior Cadets for two years (National Archives, 2015, [online]), an experience that would give him a valuable insight into the nature of the Defence Force. Combined with his occupation as a bank clerk (National Archives, 2015, [online]), Walter proved to be a hardworking and motivated young man, doubtlessly destined to use these skills for something extraordinary. And in 1914, this demand would arise.
When war broke out and Australia was pulled into the fight, Walter was hesitant at first. His cousin, Fred, served and died in Gallipoli in 1915, and this would no doubt had impacted Walter. However, on the 21st of September 1915 he enlisted in the Australian Imperial Force, and was placed the 25th Battalion, along with many other young men from the local area. (National Archives, 2015, [online]) This act of enlisting when he lost his cousin only a few months earlier showed the strong spirit and courage that Walter possessed, and showed that while he was fully aware of the dangers and likelihood of being killed, he felt he had a duty for his country to fight. It is this courageous spirit that keeps the Anzac legend alive.
Once enlisted, he departed Brisbane with the rest of his battalion on the HMAT Itonus heading to Tel el Kebir, Egypt (a training camp at the time) and, landing on the 9th of March 1916, Walter would have learned all the skills he would need in the following months (Thrower, 2015). A few days after landing Walter was also transferred to the 47th Battalion (National Archives, 2015, [online]); this new battalion was made up of the remnants of a battalion that fought in Gallipoli as well as new recruits such as Walter (Deayton, 2011 p. 37). Soon Walter left the training camp at Tel el Kebir and disembarked in Marseilles on the 6th of June 1916. It would be almost a month before Walter’s unit moved into the front line.
On the 4th of July, the 47th Battalion moved to Fleurbaix, which would later become the site of the Battle of Fromelles, to relieve the 1st Battalion, and as Corporal Keith McConnel of the 1st division wrote, “They certainly appeared to be a pretty good lot of men.” (Deayton, 2011, p.47). While this battle was relatively small in comparison of what was to come, it was in this battle, on the 6th of July, that Walter was promoted to Lance Corporal, an award that proved he was committed to the AIF, and that his conduct was excellent (National Archives, 2015, [online]). And although Walter’s battalion seemed to be ready for whatever was to come, as an unidentified soldier from the 47th Battalion quoted, “There was to be bloodletting in earnest soon.”(Deayton, 2011, p.47.)
Soon Walter found himself in the village of Pozieres, France, the location of several battles that were a part of the Battle of the Somme- a major British offensive in France. This series of battles was known as one of the most deadly and catastrophic of the war, with over 23 000 Australians killed during the battles around the small village and ‘The Windmill’ nearby- with the 47th Battalion, and Walter, in the middle of it all (Thrower, 2015). Just over a month since the Battle of the Somme began, Allied forces- with Walter as one of them- captured the main ridge of Pozieres in a costly and destructive battle, but one of the most devastating battles of the war ended the life of a valiant, noble Lance Corporal in the 47th Battalion (Deayton, 2011). On the 4th of August 1916, in the cratered battlefields of Pozieres, Walter Treble Congram was killed in action (National Archives, 2015, [online])
Walter’s death had huge impacts on his family and community. His father died just 11 years later and was likely struggling to cope with the pain of losing his son (“Government Notices”, 1927, [online]). It is evident that his mother died around the same time, and as seen in her letters to the AIF requesting Walter’s personal effects ‘it would appear unlikely that any other personal effects were recovered’ (National Archives, 2015, [online]). This would have made it particularly difficult for Annie and her family as they had nothing other than memories and a photo to remember him by.
Today, Walter and his battalion are commemorated every year at Anzac Day, their modest gallantry remembered in places like the Villers-Bretonneux Memorial in France, where Walter Treble Congram’s name stands carved into stone, and in the local area of Kenmore and Brookfield he is remembered at memorials and in museums, such as the Brookfield District Museum, that honour the sacrifice Walter and his mates made for Australia. His incredible life is researched at schools and every year more amazing tales of him and his battalion are revealed. But the fact stands that the Great War killed many honest, hardworking and courageous men, but Walter was one of the best.
Herbert Hoover quoted “Older men declare war. But it is youth that must fight and die.” Walter was one of those young men, but while he may have died in World War One, his legacy did not.
Lest We Forget.
Government Notices. (1927, June 27). The Telegraph. p. 14. Retrieved from http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/d
Letters from Annie Elizabeth Congram (nee Breddin). Further bibliographical details unavailable. Cited in National Archives. (2015). B2455. Retrieved 11 June 2015 from http://recordsearch.naa.gov.au/SearchNRetrieve/Gallery151/dist/JGalleryViewer.aspx?B=3276008&S=14&N=26#/SearchNRetrieve/NAAMedia/ShowImage.aspx?B=3276008&T=P&S=19
Portrait depicting Walter Treble Congram. Further bibliographical details unavailable. Cited in Australian War Memorial. (2015). H05825. Retrieved 12/05/2015 from https://www.awm.gov.au/collection/H05825/
Papers regarding Congram’s war experiences in the war. Further bibliographical details unavailable. Cited in National Archives (2015), B2455, Retrieved 15/05/2015 from http://recordsearch.naa.gov.au/SearchNRetrieve/Interface/ViewImage.aspx?B=3276008
Photograph depicting HMAT Itonus leaving Pinkenba Wharf. Further bibliographical details unavailable. Cited in Australian War Memorial. (2015). H02238. Retrieved 12/05/2015 from https://www.awm.gov.au/collection/H02238/
Walter Treble Congram’s Attestation Paper of Persons Enlisted for Service Abroad. Further bibliographical details unavailable. Cited in National Archives (2015), B2455 ,Retrieved 13/05/2015 from http://recordsearch.naa.gov.au/SearchNRetrieve/Interface/ViewImage.aspx?B=3276008
Australian Defence Force Academy, Walter Tremble Congram. [Website]. (2015). https://www.aif.adfa.edu.au/showPerson?pid=59639
Australia.gov.au. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.australia.gov.au/about-australia/australian-story/anzac-day
Australian War Memorial. (n.d.). Timeline: Australia in the First World War, 1914-1918. Retrieved from https://www.awm.gov.au/1914-1918/timeline/#5
Australian War Memorial, (n.d.). Retrieved from
Deayton, Craig. (2011). Battle Scarred: The 47th Battalion in the First World War. Newport, QLD: Big Sky Publishing
Family of William Treble CONGRAM and Annie Elizabeth BREDDIN. [Website] (n.d) http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~congramfamily/fam331.html
Thrower, Elizabeth. (n.d.). Lance Corporal Walter Treble Congram.
Research Paper by Charlotte Davies and Mia Behncken Second Prize (shared)
William Henry Westaway
Following tension between the dominant powers of the early 20th century, the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand sparked the beginning of a war that stole millions of brave men and women’s lives. At the outbreak of World War I, a newly formed Australia was called to bear arms in camaraderie with their ‘Mother Country’, Britain. Eager to prove themselves, many young men answered this call through voluntary enlistment. William Henry Westaway of Moggill was one of the hundreds of thousands who enlisted, sacrificing his family and future in the name of peace and leaving behind a legacy of courage and ANZAC spirit.
William was born on March 6, 1895, to a farming family in the small town of Moggill and was one of five children (Red1st, 2006-15). Parents, William Westaway and Alice Hooper, enlisted their children’s assistance on their pineapple farm from an early age, and they formed a successful business called ‘Westaway and Son’ (Westaway, 2015). As the second oldest son, William would have been a valued aid to the family business. However, as a result of his limited knowledge of life outside the isolated farming community of Moggill, a desire for adventure may have motivated William to enlist. Another contributing factor may also have been a sense of duty to honour those lost in the battle of Gallipoli, an event which shook Australia to its core. The culmination of these factors resulted in his enlistment at the age of 21, on October 1, 1915, as part of the 5th Light Horse Regiment of the 14th reinforcement (Unknown, 1915).
William left from Brisbane on the HMAT Wandilla on January 1, 1916 (Mullet, A.J., 1916). On June 26, 1916, William, as a part of the 14th reinforcement, joined the 5th Light Horse Regiment in Egypt. Records suggest that after his initial involvement, William spent time in hospital and at an ANZAC rest camp to recover from the injuries he sustained (Unknown, 1916). Later in Palestine his regiment played a crucial role in the three Battles of Gaza, their goal being to capture the Ottoman Empire’s strategically positioned defensive stronghold. In some battles the 5th Light Horse Regiment heroically fought through the streets and gardens of Gaza, leading an attack from the rear (Australian War Memorial, 2015). It was in the third of these battles, the fall of Gaza, that his regiment suffered a gas attack during which William died from a wound, as a result of a gun, to the head (Unknown, 1916-17).
The Westaway family was greatly affected by William’s tragic loss. The selling of their award winning pineapple farm shortly afterwards may be attributed to the loss of William as he was undoubtedly a valuable asset to the family business (Unknown, 1920). Even years later the family was still being affected by his loss. This was evident in a memory of William’s niece-in-law, Joan Westaway. During her honeymoon they encountered a man who recognised their family name, asking if they had a family member in the war. The man then said he had been with William as he died. She recalls that it was a touching and emotional moment for all involved (Westaway, 2015). This encounter, over forty years after William’s death, reinforces the long-term emotional impact of his loss on both the family and community.
The close-knit community of Moggill, keen to respect and honour their lost digger’s grieving family, designated a portion of previous pineapple farming land to become a park. It was then named ‘Westaway Park’, and was ‘very appreciated by the community’ (Residential Developer Magazine, 2008). Similarly Westaway Crescent in Moggill has been named to commemorate not only the loss of William, but the Westaway family’s well-known pineapple farms (Moggill Historical Society, 2015).
William and his fellow soldiers in the 14th reinforcement of the 5th Light Horse Regiment fought primarily in Egypt and significantly contributed to the success of the three Battles of Gaza, fighting for eight long months to capture the town. The results of this contributed to the seizure of Jerusalem on December 9, 1917, which ultimately weakened the Ottoman Empire and further advanced the conclusion of the war (Australian War Memorial, 2015). Without the efforts of the illustrious horsemen from Queensland, World War I would have continued for many more months. The success of the Australian troops, including William, caused the young nation of Australia to feel as if it had been accepted by the world as a hard working country worthy of recognition.
World War I caused the deaths of millions of men and women, leading to global mourning. Australia as a nation built memorials for those lost, establishing groups such as Legacy, dedicated to supporting those suffering the loss of a family member. William Westaway was one of these men who made the ultimate sacrifice. He offered his life and future in the name of his family, community and country. William and countless fellow Australians who risked and lost their lives in World War I collectively proved to the world that Australia was a force to be reckoned with, growing strong as a nation and as a people. Our society has been based and shaped around the values bravery, camaraderie and ANZAC spirit founded on the battle fields of World War I. Therefore the efforts of the Australian soldiers, specifically William Henry Westaway, can be credited with the values and ideals that Australia upholds to this day.
 There is clear evidence from William Westaway’s service record that he died of a gun-shot wound to the head (Unknown, 1916-17) although the Australian Red Cross Society’s record of missing soldiers indicates that he was gassed (Australian Red Cross Society, 1918-19).
Australian Red Cross Society, (1918-19). 2088 Trooper William Henry Westaway- 5th Light Horse. Retrieved 4 May, 2015 from http://static.awm.gov.au/images/collection/pdf/RCDIG1064413–1-.pdf
Koç, E. (2010). Anzac debate marches down wrong track. Retrieved 16 May, 2015 from http://www.upstart.net.au/2010/03/09/anzac-debate-marches-down-wrong-track/.
Mullet, A.J. (1916) Australian Imperial Force- Nominal Roll- continued. Cited in Australian War Memorial (Unknown) First World War Embarkation Rolls: Henry William Westaway. Retrieved 5 June 2015 from http://static.awm.gov.au/images/collection/items/ACCNUM_LARGE/RCDIG1067869/RCDIG1067869–130-.JPG.
Westaway, J. (2015, June 1). Telephone interview.
Weston, H.J. (c. 1915) ‘We took the Hill, come and help us keep it!’ Cited in Museum Victoria. (2015). Poster – ‘We Took the Hill. Come and Help Us Keep It’, Australia, World War I, circa 1915. Retrieved 14 May 2015 from http://museumvictoria.com.au/collections/items/1719080/poster-we-took-the-hill-come-and-help-us-keep-it-australia-world-war-i-circa-1915.
Unknown, (1916). Casualty Form- Active Service. Cited in National Archives of Australia (2014). Discovering ANZACs. Retrieved 14 May, 2015 from http://discoveringanzacs.naa.gov.au/browse/records/411815/21.
Unknown. (1916-17).Purport. Cited in National Archives of Australia. (2014). William Henry Westaway. Retrieved 14 May, 2015, from http://discoveringanzacs.naa.gov.au/browse/records/411815/37.
Unknown, (1916). H02242. Cited in Australian War Memorial (2015). H02242, Retrieved 21 May, 2015 from https://www.awm.gov.au/collection/H02242/.
Unknown, (1920, February 3). Westaway’s Pineapples, The Queensland Times. Retrieved May 13 from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article121906217.
Unknown, (1915). Australian Imperial Force- Attestation Paper of Persons Enlisted for Service Abroad. Cited in National Archives of Australia. (2014). William Henry Westaway. Retrieved 7 May, 2015 from http://discoveringanzacs.naa.gov.au/browse/records/411815/1.
Australian War Memorial. (2015). 5th Australian Light Horse Regiment. Retrieved 5 June, 2015 from https://www.awm.gov.au/unit/U51039/.
Australian Light Horse Study Centre. (2009). Desert Column- 5th LHR, AIF 5th Australian Light Horse Regiment. Retrieved 5 June 2015 from http://alh-research.tripod.com/Light_Horse/index.blog?topic_id=1105035.
Lewis, R (2004). The Australian Home Front during World War 1. Retrieved 25 May 2015 from http://www.anzacday.org.au/history/ww1/homefront/homefront.html.
Red1st. (2006-15). Alice Kate Hooper. Retrieved 5 June 2015 from http://www.redfirst.com/axholme/getperson.php?personID=I77402109329573&tree=Axholme.
Residential Developer. (2008). Sanctuary in a Rural Paradise. Retrieved 5 June 2015 from http://www.residentialdeveloper.com.au/Article/NewsDetail.aspx?p=129&id=361.
State Library of Victoria. (2015). The Rush to Enlist. Retrieved 16 May 2015 from http://ergo.slv.vic.gov.au/explore-history/australia-wwi/home-wwi/rush-enlist.
Todd, M. – Moggill Historical Society. (2013). Moggill Place Names Gazetteer. Retrieved 5 June 2015 from http://moggillhistorical.org.au/Gazetteer.html.
Research Paper by Cassie Nott and Chloe Harbutt Third Prize
William Leonard Pacey
World War 1, also known as The Great War, took place between the years of 1914-1918. Australia’s involvement in World War 1 began days after Britain declared war on Germany. An announcement from Prime Minister Andrew Fisher declared that, ‘Australians will stand beside the mother country to help and defend her to our last man and shilling.’ The outbreak of war on Australia was greeted with enthusiasm, but conversely to societal expectations, World War One became one of the most deadly conflicts to date, with the most lethal battles occurring at Gallipoli and the Western Front. The bravery of the soldiers who fought in this battle has left a legacy which continues to shape Australia centuries after the event. William Leonard Pacey exhibited such bravery during his service to Australia in World War 1.
Born on the 4th August 1894 to James Pacey and Jessie Fisher, W.L Pacey grew up on a dairy farm in Kenmore, Brisbane. William attended Kenmore State School alongside his five siblings until his primary graduation at which point he commenced working on the family farm, assisting his father. On the 8th August 1914, William, at the age of twenty, enlisted into the 7th Battery of the 3rd Australian Field Artillery in conjunction with his brother. Controversially to previous service by his family, Pacey did not enlist in the Light Horse Brigade. Furthermore, Pacey had served in the Australian military prior to the war, and this may have been a motivating factor in his enlistment.
|Bill and Jim PaceyMilitary inclination evident even prior to his enlistment in World War One, Pacey was a member of the Australian Field Artillery for a two year duration. Shortly after his enrolment in World War One, Pacey began his journey to the frontline at the Mena Camp in Cairo, where he commenced training. After approximately a year, Pacey then travelled to Gaba Tepe in Gallipoli to fight at the frontline. In an extract from a personal diary, Pacey describes his personal experiences at the frontline. “My 21st Birthday, and a German plane came over and dropped several bombs at us…” (Pacey.W,1914) Pacey and his troops fought persistently against enemies showing signs of the now famous ANZAC spirit. Although Pacey had shown incredible bravery, unfortunately Pacey along with four men were severely wounded by a shell entering their gun pit. In a letter from Corporal G. Shields, he describes the day when Will departed from them, ‘When taken to the dressing station he was unconscious but I when down later on and he waved his hand to me…I thought Will would pull through but God had willed otherwise…he died of wounds on the 25th Aug. on the Hosp. Ship Arcadia at sea.’ (Shields.G, 1916). Pacey had received the 1914-1915 Star, British War Medal and the Victory Medal from his contributions to World War One.|
Despite the nobility of the cause for which ANZAC soldiers such as William Leonard Pacey served and died, their families were nonetheless effected by their loss. Pacey’s immediate family was comprised of his mother Jessie and father James, along with four sisters, Flora, Ada, Eva and Dorothy, and his older brother Jim. Several months after the news of Pacey’s death was imparted upon his immediate family, his father James was still corresponding with the Victorian Barracks in an attempt to reclaim his son’s possessions. He states in a letter that “I would very much like to have any articles connected with him.” (Pacey, J. 1915. Retrieved 10/5/15 from National Australian Archives [online]). This reflects the vast emotional effects of Pacey’s death on his family, and is indicative of the need for connection to their late son/brother. Furthermore, due to the high mortality rate during the war, compounded with inadequate resources, soldiers were frequently buried at sea or without monument. This made it difficult for families to attain closure. W. L. Pacey was among these soldiers, with records disclosing that he was buried at sea from the hospital ship ‘HS Arcadia’ (Retrieved 12/5/15 from The AIF Project, 2015 [online]). This affected his family as they were unable to visit a grave or attend a funeral for him, and the abrupt nature of both Pacey’s death and the grieving practices available to his family may have complicated their ability to process his death.
|Kenmore War Memorial|
Fallen diggers including that of William Pacey had various impacts on the local community. After his death, a tribute to the ‘game and gallant gunner’ was published in the Brisbane Courier titled ‘A Hero’s Death’ which indicated that communities during World War One greatly mourned and appreciated the contributions the diggers had made to the war. The article states, ‘I deplore deeply your brother’s death, and can only tender you my sincere condolence…your brother…a game and gallant-and an Australian’ (The Brisbane Courier, date unknown). This exemplifies the grief that existed in society for one diggers passing. Another impact faced was due to the fact that communities suffered great numbers of casualties in the war caused the establishment of historical societies and monuments that honour the tributes these soldiers made to the war. This can be seen as there a Kenmore War Memorial which honours the soldiers in various wars which was officially unveiled on the 3rd July, 1920. Furthermore, the great proportions of fallen diggers had significant impacts on their local communities.
On a national level, society was significantly impacted by the loss of the fallen ANZAC’s, with the loss of both individual diggers such as William Leonard Pacey and the collective deceased permanently affecting Australia. One result ensuing from their sacrifice was a shift in the zeitgeist of war. The harsh realities of war became more apparent when conveyed through personal experiences, records and photographs, such as Pacey’s diary. An extract from Pacey’s personal journal details some of the difficulties faced by soldiers, such as relentless enemy fire, and rapid loss of comrades; “Saw a copy of the Daily Mirror today which had our guns and detachments photo in it. “This was taken by Capt Crowper first week in action. Capt C. has been killed since at C. Helles.” (Pacey, W.L. (Pacey, W.L., 1915). These accounts presented an alternate viewpoint from propaganda, shifting the perception of war among the Australian populous.
World War One was one of the most destructive battles in history with over nine million soldiers being killed and another twenty one million wounded. The war resulted on devastating impacts on the home front as the loss of many men brought physical and financial impacts on the family. World War One also instigated the belief of the ANZAC spirit. The legend came from the Australians and New Zealand men fighting with great courage and mateship which qualities are still acknowledged today. William Leonard Pacey’s life, service and death offered Australia a future, the impact of which will never be forgotten by his family, community and country.
Australian Military Forces Enlistment Record (1914). Further bibliographical details unavailable. Cited on Recordsearch.naa.gov.au,. (2015). National Archives of Australia. Retrieved 7 May 2015, from http://recordsearch.naa.gov.au/SearchNRetrieve/Interface/ViewImage.aspx?B=8003763
Australian War Memorial Nominal Record (1914). Further bibliographical details unavailable. Cited on Static.awm.gov.au (2015) Retrieved 9 May 2015, from http://static.awm.gov.au/images/collection/items/ACCNUM_LARGE/RCDIG1067057/RCDIG1067057–460-.JPG
Letter from Corporal G. Shields (1916). Further bibliographical details unavailable. Cited in Nicol, R (1993), Anzac Diary p49, Indooroopilly Queensland
Newspaper Article from The Brisbane Courier (30th July 1915). Further bibliographical details unavailable. Cited in Nicol, R (1993), Anzac Diary p60, Indooroopilly Queensland
Newspaper Article from The Brisbane Courier (date unknown). Further bibliographical details unknown. Cited in Nicol, R (1993), Anzac Diary p63, Indooroopilly Queensland
Pacey, J (1915) Retrieved from, Recordsearch (2015). Pacey, William Leonard. Retrieved 10 May 2015, from http://recordsearch.naa.gov.au/SearchNRetrieve/Interface/ViewImage.aspx?B=8003763
Pacey, W.L (1915). Cited in Nicol, R (1993). Anzac Diary p43-44, Indooroopilly, Queensland
Pacey, W.L (1915). Cited in Nicol, R (1993). Anzac Diary p45-46, Indooroopilly, Queensland
Photograph depicting Bill and Jim Pacey. Further bibliographical details unavailable. Cited in Nicol, R. (1993). Anzac Diary p4, Indooroopilly Queensland
Aif.adfa.edu.au,. (2015). The AIF Project. Retrieved 12 May 2015, from https://www.aif.adfa.edu.au/showPerson?pid=231960
Awm.gov.au,. (2015). Timeline: Australia in the First World War, 1914-1918 | Australian War Memorial. Retrieved 2 May 2015, from https://www.awm.gov.au/1914-1918/timeline/#2
Devine, M. (2015). William Leonard Pacey – Kenmore Moggill RSL Sub-branch. Kenmore Moggill RSL Sub-branch. Retrieved 5 May 2015, from https://kenmoremoggillrsl.orgwilliam-leonard-pacey/
Pacey, W., & Nicol, R. (1993). Anzac diary. [Indooroopilly, Qld.]: [R. Nicol].
Recordsearch.naa.gov.au,. (2015). Record Search. Retrieved 2 May 2015, from http://recordsearch.naa.gov.au/SearchNRetrieve/Interface/ViewImage.aspx?B=8003763
Trove.nla.gov.au,. (2015). Anzac diary / by William L. Pacey ; transcription from original diary by Dallas Baker ; compiled by Roslyn Nicol. – Version details – Trove. Retrieved 7 May 2015, from http://trove.nla.gov.au/work/10613910?selectedversion=NBD10344671